In the News - Friday, October
this week's FRONT PAGE (PDF)
Post Office to
By Brian Rothhammer
All friends and neighbors of Kaweah Country,
and visitors too, are invited to attend the centennial
celebration honoring the first 100 years of the Kaweah
Post Office. On Saturday, Oct. 23, from 10 am to 4
p.m., at the site of the historic post office, there
will be live entertainment, crafts, living history
exhibits, artists, and past postmistresses, all with
the atmosphere of a 1910 country picnic.
Earlier this week, Kathleen McCleary,
current postal contract holder, announced the establishment
of Kaweah Postal Foundation to preserve and protect
the historic Kaweah Post Office. While the United
States Postal Service has all but abandoned the treasured
local icon as obsolete, Three Rivers and Kaweah residents
see things differently.
McCleary, who owns the unique eight-by-10-foot
structure that has faithfully served area patrons
since 1910, is dedicated to finding practical means
to continue service to the community. The Foundation
will be the recipient for those who wish to contribute
funds, labor, or political support to keep the Kaweah
Post Office as a functioning post office and as the
vital hub of the community of Kaweah.
Also on Saturday, Oct. 23, a newly organized
running club, the Kaweah Country Runners, will be
staging an inaugural 10K (6.2 miles) run and 5K (3.1
miles) walk. The group’s first outing will be
called The Kaweah PO Centennial 10K Run & 5K Walk.
The scenic course for the 8 a.m. race
and walk will start and finish at Slick Rock Recreation
Area, and racers will complete a loop of the historic
highway to Three Rivers, now in the bottom of the
Lake Kaweah basin.
support the local runners and walkers who use the
Lake Kaweah trails and are staging this inaugural
event,” said Phil Deffenbaugh, Lake Kaweah’s
general manager. “Events like these bring attention
to more of the recreation possibilities we have at
Lake Kaweah, including the new trail project that
will loop the entire basin.”
Prizes will be awarded to overall winners.
All run/walk entrants receive a special edition T-shirt
commemorating the historic event.
Sign-ups cost $20 and are available by calling Lee
Goldstein (561-3204) or John Elliott (561-3627). No
sign-ups for the limited field of competitors will
be taken on the day of the race.
Proceeds from the race/walk will be donated
to the Kaweah Post Office.
Sheep Fire surpasses 9,000
The Sheep Fire complex, being managed
as an interagency prescribed fire, was expected to
officially surpass 9,000 acres on Friday, Oct. 1.
The fire was sparked by lightning in mid-July and
won’t be extinguished until the first significant
rainfall of the season.
Locales in Cedar Grove, Hume Lake, and
throughout Kings Canyon have been heavily impacted
by smoke. Earlier this week, fire crews contained
the creeping blaze on the western perimeter, which
lessened smoke impacts in most areas.
One employee of the Hume Lake Christian
Camp said the down-slope breezes have kept the entire
area smoky for several weeks. The conditions, she
said, are much worse in the morning until up-canyon
winds clear the smoke out in the afternoon.
Several trails remain closed in both
Kings Canyon National Park and on the Hume Lake Ranger
District of the Sequoia National Forest. Call ahead
(565-3341 or 338-2251, respectively) if planning an
outing in those areas.
In brief: All the news that fits, we print
Buck Rock Foundation
The non-profit organization that maintains
a network of historic fire lookouts announced last
month that they had been awarded a grant of $1,000
by the Bank of the Sierra. The money will be used
to benefit the foundation’s program of environmental
studies for youth.
The program is available to students
from the San Joaquin Valley who have had little or
no exposure to the outdoors nor any studies dealing
with natural history of the nearby Sierra Nevada Mountains.
The program is offered each summer to groups of children
from schools and summer camps and is conducted at
the Buck Rock Fire Lookout in Giant Sequoia National
signs college bill
To increase access to the California
State University (CSU) system, on Wednesday, Sept.
29, Gov. Schwarzenegger signed SB 1449 and AB 2302
guaranteeing CSU admission to all community college
two pieces of legislation are a historic victory for
California’s students, and I’m proud to
sign both into law,” Gov. Schwarzenegger said.
He called the law “monumental”
in guaranteeing admission after a prospective student
completes the new transfer requirements. The legislation
effectively streamlines the process for admission
to the CSU system and also makes the transfer process
to a UC more transparent.
Former Sequoia-Kings Canyon
Jeff Bradybaugh, a 28-year veteran of
the National Park Service, has been named superintendent
of Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah. Bradybaugh
served a stint as an acting superintendent in 2009
at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks before
current superintendent Karen Taylor-Goodrich was appointed.
Bradybaugh officially assumes his new
duties on October 24.
In other superintendent news, Frank Dean, a 34-year
veteran of the National Park Service, has been appointed
the new general superintendent of Golden Gate National
Recreation Area. Dean worked previously as a ranger
at Sequoia-Kings Canyon.
Last week in the TKC it was reported
that former Sequoia-Kings Canyon ranger Randy Larson
will step into the post of superintendent at Sitka
National Historical Park in Alaska.
has 45 more groves to go
After buying the book A Guide to the Sequoia Groves
of California by Dwight Willard, I decided it
would be a worthy and challenging goal to visit all
67 groves. I had already been to 20 of them so I had
a good head start.
On September 22, I drove to the end of the road north
of Buck Rock Fire Lookout in Giant Sequoia National
Monument. The Boulder Creek Grove
is one mile beyond the end of the pavement, down a
steep, rocky dirt road. Four-wheel drive is best but
my Toyota Camry did just fine with proper coaxing.
One might expect a giant sequoia grove to be quite
conspicuous, but honestly, sometimes I couldn't positively
identify them mingled among huge fir and sugar pines.
However, back up the road about a mile, there is no
mistaking the Little Boulder Creek Grove.
There is a road turnout and a sign marking the trailhead.
It's only a five-minute walk to be among dozens of
magnificent, solitary giants, which makes them appear
My initial objective the following day was the Skagway
Pine Ridge Groves
below the Muir Grove trail, which
is halfway between Grant Grove and Giant
. Muir Grove is two miles west
of the Dorst Creek Campground, which recently closed
for the season. The extra mileage necessary just to
get to the trailhead was enough deterrent for me.
The nearby Lost Grove is split by
the Generals Highway
and gets thousands of visitors for obvious reasons.
A split-rail fence fronts it on the northeast side
which suggests one should stay out, but there are
no signs and the ground around the trees has been
Traveling southbound, the Suwanee Grove
is next in line. There is no trail to it but the author
described it as
now reached by a few miles of cross-country
forest travel over relatively easy terrain.
Maybe if you are young, strong, and a seasoned bushwhacker.
I think I qualify in one of those three attributes,
which clearly raised the stakes. Hiking solo, I planned
my equipment as if I might have to bivouac overnight.
No sleeping bag, but the other essentials.
I felt confident but didn't get far before recognizing
I forgot matches and my hiking pole. I returned for
matches and forgot the pole again. That was okay because
the forest was full of natural hiking staffs, just
not very light or strong.
I parked 1.5 miles south of the Little Baldy saddle
where a road repair crew was busy. Coincidentally,
one of them, Mr. Rizzo, had recently led a crew to
the grove a few times so he gave me some helpful route
He said I might be able to follow some of their social
trails. I probably was some of the time but on my
return route the paths were just as likely game trails.
A brief description of the terrain: a 600=foot vertical
drop in one mile seemed much steeper in the soft rich
soil. A fairly recent fire left a blackened forest
that I had to negotiate to prevent my clothing and
skin being blackened by the charcoal.
I've bushwhacked through thicker vegetation but it's
slow going against springy branches, slippery boulders
hidden under a thin layer of duff, and knee-deep ferns.
This two-mile outing took me three hours but felt
Anyone up for a hike way down upon the Suwanee or
are the Giant Forest
and Grant Groves enough?
Brian Newton is an avid outdoorsman
and a subscriber who resides in Visalia.
with the sun:
oven demonstration at Green Faire
At the now-yearly Three Rivers Environmental Weekend
event at the Art Center
Saturday and Sunday, Oct.
2 and 3 I always demonstrate my newest solar oven,
usually cooking a pot of pinto beans.
At home, I also cook yams, squash, and rice pilafs.
I've fried eggs in a cast-iron skillet heated in the
oven for a while, and not long ago I baked a nice
I've cooked many loaves of solar bread. Even though
I'm a vegetarian, one of the first meals I tested
in the oven was a chicken. It came out perfectly.
My standard practice is to solar-cook several days
worth of beans or rice, then freeze them in meal-sized
quantities. After thawing them out, I heat them in
In late summer, I usually cook enough to last through
the winter and spring, when solar cooking is often
less practical. I almost never use a stove top, and
I never use a standard gas oven.
I do cook my vegetables in the microwave, but I plan
to use the solar oven more for that too.
I do not expect that many people would limit their
cooking methods, or their diets, to the extent that
I do. Nevertheless, for those who might be interested
in cooking with the sun to reduce their carbon footprint
even a small amount, here is some information that
might be useful.
(I am not a thermal engineer, so I present the figures
below for the ballpark energy savings they suggest
rather than as a precise analysis of how much oil
or natural gas is saved through any particular solar
meal. I welcome corrections to my conclusions or computations,
The earth's surface receives about 1020 watts (roughly
1 kilowatt for our purposes here) of energy per square
meter at sea level. An hour's worth of this energy
thus equals 1 kilowatt-hour, the standard measure
of electrical energy. This is the equivalent of about
3413 BTUs of thermal energy.
My oven has a solar ray collecting surface of 9 square
feet, or 0.8361 square meters. This converts to 853
watts of solar energy, and one hour of this insolation
would light a 60-watt bulb for 14 hours if it could
be converted to electricity with 100 percent efficiency.
Efficiency limitations of design and insulation cannot
be avoided, so it is somewhat difficult to compute
exactly how much the solar oven saves in electrical,
gas, or oil energy. Using a Kill A Watt power meter,
I determined that cooking a 9-ounce yam in my microwave
uses 0.22 KWH. This saves me roughly 1 KWH per week.
The energy saved by solar cooking a pot of beans or
rice instead of using a gas or electric cooktop is
more difficult to determine; it depends on the BTU
output of the burner, whether the beans are soaked
ahead of time, simmer versus full boil duration, and
other values that would require experimentation to
Nevertheless, it is clear that substantial energy
is saved by cooking my beans or rice in the solar
There is also the question of the total energy it
takes to make the oven itself. Some of my materials
were scrap, some were purchased.
I do not have the technical expertise to compare the
respective energy requirements for making my solar
oven versus a standard range, but I believe that the
energy cost of my solar oven is lower. (I believe
too that economies of scale in the production of commercial
solar ovens vs. conventional stoves would probably
make for substantially greater lifetime energy savings
for solar ovens over conventional ones.)
In any case, I am sure that by now I have probably
saved more energy than I used to make my oven, and
I will try to use scrap materials as much as possible
in the future as well. I welcome comments on this
I am confident that solar cooking is a practical way
to save energy. Solar cookers are increasingly popular
in Third World
villages to cook and pasteurize water without using
scarce and expensive firewood.
For me and many others it is fun. The U.S.
solar cooking population is
growing daily. Indeed, two days after I posted the
first photos documenting the construction of my newest
solar oven on my website, I received a message from
the Yahoo Solar Cooking Group telling me that they
would watch the process with interest. These folks
are at the front of the curve.
My own fantasy is that cooperative solar cooking projects
catch on. An ideal situation, perfect for urban neighborhoods
in any sun-drenched locale, for example, would be
one or more solar ovens in a central location, so
that people can walk to the ovens and back home. (An
oven takes up minimal space in a yard.)
Solar meals could also be made for the elderly or
disabled in the neighborhood. Somewhat in that line,
I recently traded Teriz and Don Mosley of Three Rivers
a solar-cooked yam and half of a butternut squash
for a dozen of their free-range chicken eggs. (So
as to neutralize the negative offset from driving,
I combined the trip with an already planned shopping
visit to town.)
For those who are interested, I show two solar oven
designs on my website: www.williambecker.com/SolarCooking.html,
Bill Becker of Three Rivers will demonstrate his solar
oven and his cooking skills at this Saturday's Green
new fire truck in town (photo caption)
It was a cooperative effort between several
community groups and the County of Tulare that resulted
in this week’s delivery of a new, retrofitted
Engine 14 for Three Rivers that is built for everything
from muddy roads to narrow driveways.
Election Day is November 2:
Local voters received their sample ballots
this week. On this mid-year election ballot are 18
races with candidates, nine state initiatives, and
one local measure, which is Measure V, the levy to
provide educational programs and preserve autonomy
for the Three Rivers Union School District.
Highlighting the candidates’ contests
are the races for governor, Barbara Boxer’s
seat in the U.S. Senate, and the local races for the
school boards of Woodlake High and Three Rivers School.
In the governor’s race, it’s come down
to a photo finish for Jerry Brown (Democrat) vs. Meg
Among the statewide initiatives, Proposition
19 that legalizes marijuana is garnering the most
attention. If approved, the controversial measure
would legalize marijuana use for those 21 and older
in California but it would remain illegal under federal
Rita Woodward, Tulare County’s
Registrar of Voters, issued some important advisories
relative to dates and deadlines critical to making
your vote count in the upcoming general election on
Tuesday, Nov. 2.
The last day to register to vote for this election
is Monday, Oct. 18; mail-in voter-registration cards
are available at the office of THE KAWEAH COMMONWEALTH
or request a voter-registration online card at www.sos.ca.gov.
Vote-by-mail (absentee) ballots will
be made available beginning Monday, Oct. 4. Tuesday,
Oct. 26, is the last day the Registrar of Voters office
may receive the Vote by Mail ballot requests via the
mail. After Oct. 26, voters may come to the Elections
Office in the Government Plaza at 5951 S. Mooney Boulevard
in Visalia to request a ballot in person.
All Vote by Mail ballots must be received
by 8 p.m. on Election Day at the county Elections
Office or at any polling place in Tulare County.
If registered to vote elsewhere in the
county or state, you might need to re-register to
change your address and be able to vote in the local
precinct of your choosing. For more information, or
to answer any questions about the voting process,
call Ann Turner at 624-7300.
The impact of health reform
by Harry L. Foster
If you are among the many skeptics who
wonder about the impact of health reform on your health
and family, look no further.
Starting this week, you will no longer
have to worry about being denied insurance coverage
because of a pre-existing condition. You do not have
to worry about being dropped from insurance or going
bankrupt if you or a loved one gets sick. There are
no more “lifetime limits” so that insurers
can arbitrarily stop your benefits if you max out.
And young adults can stay on their parents’
plan until they are 26.
These are just a few of the benefits
that became effective on September 23 thanks to the
Affordable Care Act, which was signed into law six
months ago. And the best is yet to come.
You might be one of the 16 million Americans
eligible for Medicaid in 2014 under the new law. If
not, the law makes it easier to find and purchase
affordable insurance and even walk into a local community
health center, like Family HealthCare Network, where
primary care services are provided whether you have
insurance or not.
More people will have both insurance
coverage and a place to go for care – two critical
components of staying healthy. A key provision of
the new health reform law expands the national network
of Community Health Centers across the country and
provides people with more health homes, better quality,
and lower costs. And this expansion will happen almost
Yes, change is coming to the American
health care system, and I am proud to be part of it
as a member of Family HealthCare Network.
We are a part of a national network of federally supported
health centers, which sprang into existence 45 years
ago to bring doctors and basic health services to
medically underserved areas. Today, our work is more
important than ever as we reach out to communities
hard hit by job losses and the recession.
The ranks of people shut out of preventive
care have grown. According to the National Association
of Community Health Centers (NACHC), there are 60
million people living without access to a doctor or
basic health care. But, with the new law, there is
Every day in our waiting rooms I witness
the value of having a health care home. When people
have a place to go for regular care, they use it and
We provide a range of services onsite
– primary care services, pediatrics, pharmacy,
dentistry, even behavioral health and nutritional
and health education counseling services. Our patients
not only experience a whole health approach under
one roof, but they are treated as individuals, with
dignity and respect.
This is what health care should be, and
the prescription is simple: treat people with good,
preventive care before they get sick. The benefits
are immediate and widely distributed across all segments
Local hospital emergency rooms are free
to focus on saving lives and the cost load is lightened
for consumers, taxpayers, and governments. Public
health improves with the portals of affordable health
care open to more people.
But the approach is not from the top
down, but the bottom up. That is where the real work
of health reform happens – at the local level.
As someone who works on the frontlines
of health care, my message is that the new reform
law will make health care coverage more secure by
ensuring that working families cannot be denied coverage
due to a pre-existing condition, or lose their coverage,
or be forced to choose between buying groceries or
going to a doctor. In addition to having coverage,
consumers will see a revitalized health care delivery
system that emphasizes primary care and medical homes.
With coverage and access available to
more people, the prognosis for America is getting
Harry L. Foster is
the president and CEO of Family HealthCare Network.
Real estate team offers
For many visitors to Three Rivers, the
question arises: “Wouldn’t this be the
perfect place to live?” Ask a local resident
and they are likely to reply, “Why yes, it is!”
So how do you find that perfect home,
whether you’re new to the area or a longtime
resident seeking to trade up? See a qualified, professional
Realtor Melinda Deathriage and Realtor-Associate
Esther Garcia are just the professionals to see. Located
at the Century 21 office at 40486 Sierra Drive (across
from the Three Rivers Post Office), Esther and Melinda
offer a wide variety of properties from quaint country
cottages to grand estates.
Their ever-changing listings also include
lots and acreage for those who wish to custom-build
their own dream.
like to help people find the perfect home for them,
be it a quiet place to retire, the ideal place to
raise a family, or a place to start a business,”
said Esther, who was raised in Woodlake, but has lived
in Three Rivers for most of her life.
Her career in real estate began in 2004.
fun and exciting to help people find their dream homes,”
added Melinda. “Over time you establish a relationship
with your clients based on trust, professionalism,
and a desire to help people find the ideal property
to fit their needs.”
Melinda has been with the Century 21
Three Rivers office for just over a year. She is,
however, no newcomer to real estate or to understanding
her clients needs.
She is a Mt. Whitney High School grad
who worked in the banking, loan processing, and mortgage-lending
industries for 17 years. She is a licensed Realtor.
make an excellent team,” said Melinda. “Esther
and I work very well together. We know the properties
and the folks.”
Esther agrees: “We give it the
personal touch… these are our neighbors. For
an intimate view of Three Rivers (and available properties)
come see us. We know the hot spots, the secret spots,
and where the good buys are.”
Visit Esther and Melinda at the local
Century 21 office or give them a call: Melinda, 967-9418;
Vettes visit Three Rivers
During the weekend of September 24 to
26, SLO Vettes, a Corvette club from the Central Coast,
toured Three Rivers and Sequoia National Park. While
in Three Rivers, the group stayed at Buckeye Tree
Lodge. SLO Vettes, founded in 1979 as the Golden Coast
Corvette Club, has about 50 members and takes one
weekend trip every few months and many day trips throughout
How to prevent a cold
It’s that time of year again when
the common cold begins being passed from one person
to the next. To avoid the misery of sneezing, coughing,
sore throat, and runny nose, prevention is the best
Here are some proactive ways to help
prevent catching a cold:
hands frequently. Shaking hands and touching doorknobs,
keyboards, and telephones are all easy ways to catch
germs. Keep hand sanitizer available for when hand
washing is not possible.
touching your face. The eyes, nose, and mouth are
primary entry points for cold germs to enter the body.
away from people who are coughing and sneezing. The
less exposure to viruses, the less chance of catching
plenty of water. Water is the best way to help flush
toxins out of your system.
healthy foods. A well-balanced diet provides the vitamins
and minerals necessary for a strong immune system.
Regular aerobic exercise will help keep the immune
system ready to fight off invading germs.
smoking and second-hand smoke. Smokers are much more
likely to catch colds than nonsmokers. Second-hand
smoke suppresses the immune system.
alcohol intake. Alcohol dehydrates the body and has
a negative effect on the immune system.
time outdoors. Germs thrive in closed areas. Also,
central heating systems dry out the air and subsequently
your body, leaving you more susceptible to germs.
adequate rest. Not getting enough sleep lowers your
resistance to germs. Plan for eight hours of sleep
WELCOME TO MY FOOD COLUMN
Ballymaloe Cookery School
Part Five: Desserts
by Tina St. John
This is the fifth
installment in a continuing series about the author’s
two-week visit this past summer to the renowned Ballymaloe
Cookery School in rural County Cork, Ireland. Previous
installments may be read online at www.kaweahcommonwealth.com
(Newspaper Archives, September 3, 10, 17, and 24,
* * *
are a subject close to my heart. If I could have bottled
and sold my excitement while eating the many desserts
at Ballymaloe, I’d be rich.
There is no end to the delights, and
I plead guilty to my contribution in supporting the
continual consumption of Ballymaloe sweets.
Everyday the lunches were grand, as they
say in Ireland. However, in my opinion, the desserts
were even more grand.
Regularly after lunch, dessert was served;
more dessert than one could imagine. It was decadence
so irresistible that delusion was probable.
Meringue Tarts with Raspberry and Cream,
Lemon Pudding, Chocolate Pudding, Old-fashioned Rice
Pudding, Ballymaloe Praline Ice Cream, Lemon Poppyseed
Cupcakes, and Wellington Bars are just a few of the
assorted recipes taught and served at the school.
every dessert there was cream: whipped cream, clotted
cream, and regular pouring cream. There is never,
ever a shortage of cream in Ireland.
I could have bathed and had regular facials
in cream if had I chosen to do so. And fresh raspberries
or black currants just picked and still warm from
the sun were also an enticing addition.
What I loved most about the desserts,
aside from their taste, was the way they were presented.
Appearance really is half the appeal to eating.
Arrangements strategically placed on
colorful, artistic platters, plates, and trays with
fresh flowers accenting the dish were brilliant.
For instance, a simple serving of Lemon Posset,
nothing more than cream mixed with lemon juice and
sugar that magically thickens into a pudding consistency,
was placed in a colorful bowl laced with sweet geranium
leaves and a sprig of lavender. Another eye-catching
dish was Ballymaloe Praline Ice Cream scooped on a
simple white ceramic serving tray with raspberry choli,
a puree-type syrup made from fresh raspberries, drizzled
across the tray with edible flowers of yellow, orange,
Everyday, when approaching the dessert
tray, I justified my thoughts by telling myself that
someone had to eat them. It was nothing short of divine
bliss and what I will always consider as one of the
many blessings at the school.
I’ve included some of my favorite
dessert recipes from Ballymaloe Cookery School for
your happiness and bliss. Along with these dishes,
I hope you take the time to present them with your
own gift of flare.
A creamy rice pudding is one of the greatest
treats on a cold winter’s day. Use short-grain
rice, which plumps as it cooks. This is definitely
a forgotten pudding, but a favorite at the Cookery
oz short-grain rice
¼ cup castor sugar or baker’s sugar
Small knob of butter
5 cups of milk
Put the rice, sugar, and butter into a 9-inch
(1 quart) pie dish. Bring the milk to a boil and pour
over. Bake for 1½ hours at 350 degrees. The
skin should be golden, the rice underneath should
be cooked through and have soaked up the milk, but
still be soft and creamy. Time it so when it comes
out you’re ready to eat it. If it sits in the
oven for any length of time, it will be dry and dull
and you’ll wonder why you bothered.
Three good things to serve with rice
pudding: Softly whipped cream and soft brown sugar,
compote of apricots and cardamom, compote of sweet
apples and rose geranium.
TUSCAN PLUM TART
1 cup sugar
½ cup water
1 lb. plums
1¼ stick soft butter
¾ cup sugar
1 ¾ cup self-rising flour
10 in. saute’ pan or cast iron skillet
Preheat oven to 325 degrees.
Put sugar and water into a pan. Stir
over medium heat until the sugar dissolves, then cook
without stirring until sugar caramelizes to a rich
Meanwhile, halve and stone the plums, arrange cut
side down in a single layer over the caramel.
Put the butter, sugar, and flour into
a bowl of a food processor. Whizz for a second or
two, add the eggs, and stop as soon as the mixture
comes together. Spoon over the plums,
spread gently in as even a layer as possible.
Bake in the preheated oven for approximately
one hour. The center should be firm to the touch and
the edge slightly shrunk from the sides of the pan.
Allow to rest in the pan for 4-5 minutes before turning
out. Serve with softly whipped cream.
This recipe is so simple, yet so delicious
and satisfying. I was amazed how thick it was after
it had cooled. You can top with berries, nectarines,
peaches, pears, some toasted almonds, or even whipped
cream for added joy.
cups of double cream or heavy cream
½ cup castor sugar or baker’s sugar
2 fl. oz. of lemon juice
Place the cream and sugar in a pan and bring it to
a simmer. Turn down the heat to low and cook, stirring
often, for five minutes. Remove the pan from the heat,
squeeze in the lemon juice, strain and allow to cool.
Place in the fridge for an hour in a small, deep bowl.